"Ice Age Columbus". More and more evidence from tools, human remains, DNA and even from examining American Indian folk tales, show that Europeans were the first original native people of America and the only ones to exclusively inhabit the "New World" for 1000's of years.
Professor Alice Roberts journeys 40,000 years back in time on the trail of the great beasts of the Ice Age. Drawing on the latest scientific detective work and a dash of graphic wizardry, Alice brings the Ice Age giants back to life.
In this episode, Alice ventures to the parts of the northern hemisphere hit hardest by the cold - Europe and Siberia.
High in the mountains of Transylvania, a cave sealed for thousands of years reveals grisly evidence for a fight to the death between two starving giants, a cave bear and a cave lion. These animals, which would dwarf their modern-day relatives, were probably driven into conflict by the pressure on food supplies as the Ice Age gathered pace.
Yet Alice discovers that, for woolly rhinos and woolly mammoths, the Ice Age created a bounty. The Mammoth Steppe, a vast tract of land which went halfway round the world, provided food all year round for those that liked the cold. It was these mammoths that Europe's most dangerous predators - Neanderthals and our own ancestors - hunted for their survival.
Art of Ice Age Europe: wiki/Art_of_the_Upper_Paleolithic
Art of the Ice Age: sculpture/
Early modern Homo sapiens in Africa and Southwest Asia made tools that were similar to those of the Neandertals and other late archaic humans. These were mostly simple Mousterian-like Levallois flake and core tools. However, by 75,000 years ago some modern humans began producing new kinds of artifacts that were revolutionary enough to warrant their being placed into a different Paleolithic stage--the Upper Paleolithic. This was the height of technical sophistication during the Old Stone Age. These innovative developments are most well known from European site. Small game and plant food exploitation became increasingly important to the Cro-Magnon and most other people in the northern hemisphere. This was a necessity because most of their populations were growing and the climate was changing as the ice began to melt near the end of the last ice age. During the roughly 5,000 years of final glacial melt, large game animals became progressively scarce in the northern hemisphere. As a result, human hunting success would have been rarer. The combined effect of rapidly changing climates and increased hunting by humans with more effective weapons heavily contributed to the extinction of at least 50 genera of large animals (mostly mammals) at that time.
The Cro-Magnon people increased their food supply by developing coordinated group hunting techniques for the killing of large herd animals, especially in the river valleys of Western Europe and the plains of Central and Eastern Europe. They also developed new specialized hunting weapons. The art of spear hunting was revolutionized by the invention of the spear thrower. The Cro-Magnon people of Europe regularly decorated their tools and sculpted small pieces of stone, bone, antler, and ivory. Necklaces, bracelets, and decorative pendants were made of bones, teeth, and shells. Cave walls were often painted with naturalistic scenes of animals. Clay was also modeled occasionally. Some of the European cave art seems to have been associated with ceremonies. These ceremonies may have been accompanied by music. The areas of the caves in which paintings were made and used often have good acoustical qualities. Drumsticks, flutes, and bull-roarers were found near the paintings in Lascaux click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced Cave. The art very likely reflects the Cro-Magnon world view. Some researchers have suggested that they were, in part, depicting their spirit world. The fact that footprints of both adults and children have been found in some of the caves near the paintings has also suggested that the art was connected with male initiation ceremonies for boys becoming men. The Cro-Magnon people are, perhaps, most well known for their paintings on the walls of caves. Although, this cave art is most abundant in Southwest France and Northern Spain, it was made elsewhere by other early modern humans as well. With cave art, we see the first large scale, concrete symbols of human thoughts, feelings, and perhaps even beliefs about the supernatural. Over 150 Western European caves have been found with these ice age paintings on their walls. A few Cro-Magnon bone artifacts dating to as early as 25,000 years ago have what appear to be carefully incised lineal sequences of circular to crescent-shaped ticks. Alexander Marshack believes that at least one of these bones was made to be used as a lunar calendar of sorts. If calendars were being made, it implies that some people were recognizing the cyclical nature of the seasons. To people dependent on seasonally available foods and migrating herds, a calendar would have allowed more accurate predictions that would make the food quest more efficient. Also of great value to Upper Paleolithic hunters and gatherers would have been maps. The earliest possible map was scratched into a 16,000 year old bone found at Mezhirich in Ukraine. It evidently shows the countryside around a Cro-Magnon settlement.
When it comes to European Ice Age cave art, researchers have primarily focused their attention on the animal and human art, largely ignoring the geometric signs found to the sides of these beautiful paintings. At most sites, the geometric signs outnumber the animal paintings by two to one. That intrigued Genevieve Von Petzinger, a 2016 National Geographic emerging explorer. What could these rarely studied signs mean? Von Petzinger takes the stage to talk about her passion for exploration and her quest to uncover the hidden meaning behind these markings.
➡ Subscribe: NatGeoSubscribe
➡ Get More Nat Geo Live: MoreNatGeoLive
About Nat Geo Live (National Geographic Live):
The National Geographic Live series brings thought-provoking presentations by today’s leading explorers, scientists, photographers, and performing artists right to you. Each presentation is filmed in front of a live audience at National Geographic headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Get More National Geographic:
Official Site: NatGeoOfficialSite
About National Geographic:
National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible.
Upcoming Events at National Geographic Live
For more information about Genevieve's work check out her recently published book:
PRODUCER: Hilary Hudson
EDITOR: Monica Pinzon
TECHNICAL DIRECTOR: John McDonald
SERIES PRODUCER: Chris Mattle
The National Geographic Live series brings thought-provoking presentations by today’s leading explorers, scientists, photographers, and performing artists right to you. Each presentation is filmed in front of a live audience at National Geographic headquarters in Washington, D.C. New clips air every Monday.
Ice Age Cave Art: Unlocking the Mysteries Behind These Markings | Nat Geo Live
Blue Sky ICE AGE Animated 3D Film 11 Chips Promo Pack with 50 Limited Edition Change Color Sticker to Play and Collect available in Europe 2016 Opening Buck, Diego, Brooke, Sid, Julian, Manny and more... Naklejki Epoka Lodowcowa - Читос - Kollision Voraus
Blue Sky 2016 Ice Age 5 & Crazy Fiends Mini Figures 48 Kinder Joy Choco Eggs: 9bEMaCctbX0
2014 Blue Sky Studios RIO 2 Film 12 Kinder Joy Special Limited Edition Toys: JPdvABED8sw
Blue Sky Ice Age 4: Continental Drift Chupa Chups Lollipop + Stickers: KVta5r0Orn4
Blue Sky Studios Ice Age 5 Promotional Nestlé Breakfast Cereals Packs + Cosmics Discs: 4-wKptL794k
2015 Blue Sky Snoopy & Charlie Brown The Peanuts Movie Cinema Pack: LZewshD5G8o
Blue Sky RIO2 Movie Bird Toy PEZ Candy Dispenser Set European Collection: WI_HR3jRftI
Blue Sky The Peanuts Movie McDonalds Happy Meal Complete Set Action Figure: tOHKHf8QtzQ
Angry Birds 5 Super Surprise Egg: Toy + Sticker + Candy Juguetes Sorpresa: giPHGeEjScs
Blue Sky ICE AGE 2016 Movie Panini Mega Starter Set Sticker Album & Stickers: SCK59uKfMM4
Educational Video for Kids 2016 by P.S.W.C.
Song Music "Sound One" Long Version Ware Created by Me and Are My Property (p)(c) 2013 by Polsih Star Wars Collector ( P.S.W.C. )
The Solutreans were a remarkably society, the most innovative, adaptive and inventive of the time. They were among the first to discover the value of heat treating flints to increase strength. Bradley was keen to discover if Solutrean flintknapping styles matched Clovis techniques. A trawl through the unattractive flint offcuts in the storerooms of a French museum convinced him of the similarities, even though five thousand kilometres lay between their territories.
Tool Makers from Europe: The “Solutrean Hypothesis”
In 1998, Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford suggested that the east coast of the Americas was colonized first by Ice Age Europeans, specifically the Solutreans, long before the first Clovis ancestors arrived from Beringia. The Solutrean culture was present in France and Spain from about 18,000 BCE and was responsible for some of the cave paintings in the region. Solutrean sites are noted for the innovation, beauty and refinement of their artifacts – they are credited with inventing the bow and arrow – and represent a clear advance in the arts of bone and stone tool making.
It is the similarities between these tools and those of the Clovis people that inspired the “Solutrean Hypothesis.” While it is clear that the Clovis people originated in eastern Asia, there are no artifacts in the relevant Old World regions that resemble their New World tools. In fact, Clovis tools were made using the same technology first found among the Solutreans, characterized by finely worked points made with pressure flaking rather than cruder knapping. This technology produced delicate slivers of flint for light projectiles and elaborate arrowheads, as well as other tools similar to those traditionally used by present-day indigenous people of the Arctic.
The Solutreans were maritime people; there are shellfish remains at their sites, as well as cave paintings of seals and ocean fish. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) forced the Solutrean population to the coast. For people adapted to Arctic conditions, seaward was the direction of plenty. Unlike the glaciated inland, the sea ice edge was one of the world’s richest environments for food. And an archipelago of ice stretched across the North Atlantic at the time, connecting Europe and America.
So, the theory goes, the Solutreans paddled from Ice Age Europe in kayaks perhaps as early as 18,000 BCE using methods similar to those of modern Inuits – camping on ice floes, drinking water from icebergs, and burning blubber for heat. The Solutrean toolkit, which included sewing needles and fish hooks, certainly could have been used to make waterproof clothing and watercraft from animal skins. Eventually the American descendents of Solutrean immigrants met up with the people who crossed from Beringia, and the Clovis technology was born. But as with the coastal route theory of Beringia migration, the difference in modern sea levels prevents a direct search for archaeological evidence. However, evidence of an entirely different kind, from the study of genetic origins, has added interest in the Solutrean Hypothesis.
The Original Gen X
A haplogroup is a means of grouping people according to the presence of a common set of genes in their DNA. Haplogroups are large – that is, many individuals will share the same haplogroup marker genes – and tend to be concentrated in geographic regions. By understanding the rate at which a marker mutates, haplogroups can serve as means of tracing human migrations using genetics. Each small change in the slowly evolving marker tracks backward geographically to where the marker first appeared, and so links the people who have this genetic trait back to its first appearance in their most recent common ancestor.
There are five haplogroups found in the genes of present-day Native Americans, labeled A, B, C, D, plus an appropriately named haplogroup X. The first four haplogroups are commonly found in East Asia, confirming that early Americans migrated in at least three separate waves from those regions. From the evolution of the markers of haplogroups A, C, and D, however, it appears that people with these traits must have diverged from their Asian cousins 20,000 to perhaps 30,000 years ago, far earlier than even the revised consensus for the arrival of the first settlers. Of course these people might have somehow been isolated before crossing over Beringia.
But it is the origin of haplogroup X that may have the most significance for the Solutrean Hypothesis. While less common than the other four haplogroups, it is still widespread, even in South America, and is found in greatest frequency in the tribes of the northeastern United States. This marker cannot be traced back to a shared ancestor anywhere in Siberia or eastern Asia, but it is similar to a haplogroup in European populations. The possible connection of haplogroup X to the Solutreans is easily perceived.
The Solutrean hypothesis contends that Europeans may have been in Americas before the arrival of a later wave of people from Asia. Stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. Some of its key proponents include Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Dr. Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter.
In this hypothesis, peoples associated with the Solutrean culture migrated from Ice Age Europe to North America, bringing their methods of making stone tools with them and providing the basis for later Clovis technology found throughout North America. The hypothesis rests upon particular similarities in Solutrean and Clovis technology that have no known counterparts in Eastern Asia, Siberia or Beringia, areas from which or through which early Americans are known to have migrated.
Solutrean culture was dominant in Europe and present-day France and Spain from roughly 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. It was known for its distinctive toolmaking characterized by bifacial, pressure-flaked points. Traces of the Solutrean tool-making industry disappear completely from Europe around 15,000 years ago, when it was replaced by the less complex stone tools of the Magdalenian culture.
Clovis tools are typified by a distinctive rock spear point, known as the Clovis point. Like Solutrean points, Clovis points are thin and bifacial; they share so-called "overshot" flaking characteristics that yield wide, flat blades. Clovis tool-making technology seems to appear in the archaeological record in North America roughly 13,500 years ago, and similar predecessors in Asia or Alaska have not yet been discovered.
The hypothesis proposes that Ice Age Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to North America during the last glacial maximum. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting iceberg ice or the first-frozen parts of sea ice, getting food by catching seals and fish, and using seal blubber as heating fuel.
Supporters of the hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia) indicate a transitional style between the Clovis and Solutrean cultures. Artifacts from this site are estimated to date from 17,000 to 15,000 years ago, although some researchers dispute their definitive age. Other sites that may indicate transitional, pre-Clovis occupation include the Page-Ladson site in Florida and the Meadowcroft rockshelter in Pennsylvania.
MtDNA Haplogroup X
The idea is also supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis insofar as the fact that some members of some native North American tribes share a common yet distant maternal ancestry with some present-day individuals in Europe identified by mtDNA Haplogroup X. Unlike other Native American mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C and D, Haplogroup X is not common in Northeastern Asia or Siberia (although occurence of Haplogroup X2 of more recent origin has been identified in the Altai Republic). The New World haplogroup X DNA (now called subgroup X2a) is as different from any of the Old World X2 lineages as they are from each other, indicating a very ancient origin. Although haplogroup X occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a major haplogroup in northeastern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types.
Dennis J. Stanford & Bruce A. Bradley: Across Atlantic Ice -- The Origin of America's Clovis Culture. University of California, 2012. ISBN 0520227832
Windover Bog people
Europeans in America
Timeline of Europeans in America
Смотреть Ice Age Europeans The First Americans бесплатно