Ice Age Europeans The First Americans

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America's Hidden History▕ Ice Age European

The Solutrean hypothesis contends that Europeans may have been in Americas before the arrival of a later wave of people from Asia. Stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. Some of its key proponents include Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Dr. Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter.

In this hypothesis, peoples associated with the Solutrean culture migrated from Ice Age Europe to North America, bringing their methods of making stone tools with them and providing the basis for later Clovis technology found throughout North America. The hypothesis rests upon particular similarities in Solutrean and Clovis technology that have no known counterparts in Eastern Asia, Siberia or Beringia, areas from which or through which early Americans are known to have migrated.

Characteristics

Solutrean culture was dominant in Europe and present-day France and Spain from roughly 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. It was known for its distinctive toolmaking characterized by bifacial, pressure-flaked points. Traces of the Solutrean tool-making industry disappear completely from Europe around 15,000 years ago, when it was replaced by the less complex stone tools of the Magdalenian culture.

Clovis tools are typified by a distinctive rock spear point, known as the Clovis point. Like Solutrean points, Clovis points are thin and bifacial; they share so-called "overshot" flaking characteristics that yield wide, flat blades. Clovis tool-making technology seems to appear in the archaeological record in North America roughly 13,500 years ago, and similar predecessors in Asia or Alaska have not yet been discovered.

Atlantic crossing

The hypothesis proposes that Ice Age Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to North America during the last glacial maximum. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting iceberg ice or the first-frozen parts of sea ice, getting food by catching seals and fish, and using seal blubber as heating fuel.

Transitional styles

Supporters of the hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia) indicate a transitional style between the Clovis and Solutrean cultures. Artifacts from this site are estimated to date from 17,000 to 15,000 years ago, although some researchers dispute their definitive age. Other sites that may indicate transitional, pre-Clovis occupation include the Page-Ladson site in Florida and the Meadowcroft rockshelter in Pennsylvania.

MtDNA Haplogroup X

The idea is also supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis insofar as the fact that some members of some native North American tribes share a common yet distant maternal ancestry with some present-day individuals in Europe identified by mtDNA Haplogroup X. Unlike other Native American mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C and D, Haplogroup X is not common in Northeastern Asia or Siberia (although occurence of Haplogroup X2 of more recent origin has been identified in the Altai Republic). The New World haplogroup X DNA (now called subgroup X2a) is as different from any of the Old World X2 lineages as they are from each other, indicating a very ancient origin. Although haplogroup X occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a major haplogroup in northeastern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types.

Books

Dennis J. Stanford & Bruce A. Bradley: Across Atlantic Ice -- The Origin of America's Clovis Culture. University of California, 2012. ISBN 0520227832

See also

Kennewick Man
Windover Bog people
Europeans in America
Timeline of Europeans in America

Комментарии (131)

Apidium (1 год назад)
The Indians stole the land from White Europeans! Can we say that now? oh,
no, that would be racist, right?
Icarus wingsofsteel (1 год назад)
is there something wrong with my laptop or does the sound suddenly become
strange and deeper at 50:57.
Martín Rabezzana (1 год назад)
"The Americas",... THERE IS ONLY ONE AMERICA WHICH EXTENDS FROM CANADA TO
ARGENTINA.... PEOPLE CALL THE "U.S. " "AMERICA" AS IF THE REST OF THE
CONTINENT DID NOT EXIST; THAT'S PLAIN CONTEMPT. (even those who claim to be
for "equality" do it).
Luis Jerez (1 год назад)
the first immigrants .. Americans were already living here.
David Davidson (1 год назад)
Thank you Lord God Almighty for we are all made in your image amen.
Christopher Lopez (1 год назад)
Ok so you are saying that Europeans came to america first and then they
turned into NATIVE AMERICANS. Great! NATIVE AMERICANS ARE ALL EUROPEANS.
GIVE THEM THEIR LAND BACK.
NeoOhm (1 год назад)
The horse at the start of the docky sure was a great actor--acthorse?
Michael Clee (1 год назад)
Aliens don't exsit
Aaron Shaw (1 год назад)
that horse at the begining makes me wonder if they actually killed it and
made these people actually experience cave men or i ce men waterver
experiences 
Soror Lourdes Metz (1 год назад)
SanFranGirl1982 (1 год назад)
Why do creationists, religious zealots, white supremacists all insist on
watching documentaries about early man when they know they aren't going to
be happy with what they see?
Murrangurk2 (1 год назад)
I'm SO glad this was over-dramatised, or else i would never have learnt a
thing!
M1aws (1 год назад)
There were the original settlers to this continent from many races,
including Australian Aboriginals, Viking (ruins) and Japanese people. What
about those huge carved heads of black men? Even the appearances of the
many, many separate tribes can be quite profound.
I'm glad previous bigotry about the "Indian" origins is over. Let's face it
they did not invent the creation of metals and pottery separately to the
rest of the world. And let's not forget, cocaine has been found in the
cadavers of Egyptian mummies.
Durwin Pocha (1 год назад)
up from the ground, all men first come.
Learning8260 (1 год назад)
when did u bring that old stone& dna to usa? in 20th century exported
loooool? Otherwise where are the ancient dead bodies? Dead Story lol

its not about Race ! But Human History ! so we should not try to create
stories for creating racism ! anyways i am an Original European!
Pia k (1 год назад)
There were no "Europeans' during the Ice Age The term "Europe' did not
exist then. 
Shah Khan (1 год назад)
Propaganda ,,,, 
Steve Jackson (1 год назад)
Again the European is trying to rewrite history. There is already
documented proof who the first Americans are. Watch the youtube videos done
by your own European scholars that prove without a doubt who the first
Americans are "First Americans were Black Aborigines", "The Olmecs :
Secrets of the Ancient Olmecs (Full Documentary)" and if the truth be told
and it has been and will again be told. The African family is the first
European family and the first family of earth! 
Hugues Godefroy (1 год назад)
Many thanks for the explanation in this first comment.
Could we believe and/or evidence a connection of the Solutreans with the
Sahaarians , in the name of negative blood rhesus in Basque country ?
Palash Bedi (1 год назад)
lol! i stopped when the narrator said " Where did they "came" from?"

death to grammar!!